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SAGE Journals: Table of Contents Table of Contents for Acta Radiologica. List of articles from ahead of print issues.

  • How low can we go? CT dose reduction in the assessment of the medial clavicular epiphysis in forensic age estimation: a prospective postmortem CT study
    by Silke Mehnert on 30. marts 2023 at 3:40

    Acta Radiologica, Ahead of Print. <br/>BackgroundProjection radiography and, more recently, computed tomography (CT) play an important role in forensic age estimation. Both in terms of general criminal responsibility and government regulations concerning refugee care, it is important to differentiate correctly between youths and adults. A disadvantage of age estimation in CT is the ionizing radiation exposure.PurposeTo investigate how far the CT dose can be reduced without losing diagnostic confidence in assessing the different stages of ossification of the medial clavicle.Material and MethodsWe prospectively scanned 25 postmortem cases with a fixed parameters protocol (FPP) and a care dose modulation protocol (CDMP) for different scan parameters. Two radiologists assessed the diagnostic image quality using a 5-point Likert scale. Inter-reader agreement was evaluated with Cohen's kappa. Differences in doses between FPP and CDMP were assessed with the one-tailed t-test.ResultsThe best combination of diagnostic image quality and lowest radiation dose was obtained using a CDMP with 100 kV and 40 mAs and an FPP with 100 kV and 30 mAs. Doses for 120 kV were significantly higher (one-tailed P < 0.001). The diagnostic image quality for 80 kV was insufficient overall.DiscussionOur results confirm that CT imaging at 100 kV allows a sufficient image quality that is diagnostic for age estimation in the ossification of the medial clavicle.

  • Imaging characteristics of phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors
    by Amit Gupta on 14. marts 2023 at 6:18

    Acta Radiologica, Ahead of Print. <br/>BackgroundTumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome associated with phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors (PMTs). Localization of the causative tumor in these cases is an arduous task since the culprit lesions are usually small, slow-growing, and can be located almost anywhere from head to toe.PurposeTo describe the morphological characteristics of histologically proven PMTs on various radiological modalities.Material and MethodsAfter institutional ethical approval, this retrospective study analyzed 20 cases with a histopathological evidence of PMT. Various imaging characteristics of the tumors on available computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were evaluated. Descriptive statistical analyses were conducted.ResultsThe tumors were located in diverse locations: lower extremities (n = 10); head and neck (n = 5); vertebral column (n = 3); pelvis (n = 1); and upper extremities (n = 1). Bone lesions seen on CT had variable morphology: sclerotic (n = 3/8, 37.5%); lytic (n = 3/8, 37.5%), and both lytic and sclerotic (n = 2/8, 25%) with presence of narrow zone of transition in all cases (n = 8/8) and amorphous internal matrix calcifications in 25% of cases (n = 2/8). Of the tumors, 68.4% (n = 13/19) were hypointense on T1 and all of them showed hyperintense signal on T2-weighted and STIR images (n = 19/19) and contrast enhancement (n = 16/16). Of the tumors, 66.7% (n = 6/9) showed restricted diffusion. DOTANOC PET/CT showed tumor uptake in all cases (n = 8/8).ConclusionPMTs may have variable and non-specific tumor appearances on various imaging modalities. However, in an appropriate clinical scenario and a background of suggestive biochemical work-up, the radiologist should keep a high index of suspicion.

  • The investigation of reduced field-of-view diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: comparison with conventional DWI
    by Tiebao Meng on 13. marts 2023 at 8:52

    Acta Radiologica, Ahead of Print. <br/>BackgroundField-of-view optimized and constrained undistorted single-shot imaging (FOCUS) is a new sequence that shows enhanced anatomical details, improving the diffusion-weighted (DW) images.PurposeTo investigate the value of FOCUS diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the evaluation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and compare it with the single-shot echo planner imaging (SS-EPI) DWI approach.Material and MethodsA total of 87 patients with NPC underwent magnetic resonance imaging, including FOCUS and SS-EPI DWI sequences. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), signal-intensity ratio (SIR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the nasopharyngeal lesions were measured and compared. According to the clinical stages of patients, T and N were divided into early and advanced stage groups, respectively. The mean ADC values of the two techniques were computed, and the area under the curve (AUC) was estimated to calculate the diagnostic efficiency.ResultsSubjective and objective image qualitative values of FOCUS were significantly higher than those of SS-EPI. The ADC values for FOCUS of early T and N stages were significantly lower than those of the advanced stages.ConclusionFOCUS provides significantly better image quality in NPC compared to SS-EPI, with lower ADC values for early-stage disease than late-stage disease.

  • Artificial intelligence for assistance of radiology residents in chest CT evaluation for COVID-19 pneumonia: a comparative diagnostic accuracy study
    by Lucja Mlynska on 9. marts 2023 at 5:56

    Acta Radiologica, Ahead of Print. <br/>BackgroundIn hospitals, it is crucial to rule out coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) timely and reliably. Artificial intelligence (AI) provides sufficient accuracy to identify chest computed tomography (CT) scans with signs of COVID-19.PurposeTo compare the diagnostic accuracy of radiologists with different levels of experience with and without assistance of AI in CT evaluation for COVID-19 pneumonia and to develop an optimized diagnostic pathway.Material and MethodsThe retrospective, single-center, comparative case-control study included 160 consecutive participants who had undergone chest CT scan between March 2020 and May 2021 without or with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia in a ratio of 1:3. Index tests were chest CT evaluation by five radiological senior residents, five junior residents, and an AI software. Based on the diagnostic accuracy in every group and on comparison of groups, a sequential CT assessment pathway was developed.ResultsAreas under receiver operating curves were 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.88–0.99), 0.96 (95% CI=0.92–1.0), 0.77 (95% CI=0.68–0.86), and 0.95 (95% CI=0.9–1.0) for junior residents, senior residents, AI, and sequential CT assessment, respectively. Proportions of false negatives were 9%, 3%, 17%, and 2%, respectively. With the developed diagnostic pathway, junior residents evaluated all CT scans with the support of AI. Senior residents were only required as second readers in 26% (41/160) of the CT scans.ConclusionAI can support junior residents with chest CT evaluation for COVID-19 and reduce the workload of senior residents. A review of selected CT scans by senior residents is mandatory.

  • Utility of ultrasound Angio-PLUS imaging for detecting blood flow in breast masses and comparison with color Doppler for differentiating benign from malignant masses
    by Namita Mohindra on 9. marts 2023 at 5:55

    Acta Radiologica, Ahead of Print. <br/>BackgroundTumor neo-angiogenesis plays an important role in the development and growth of breast cancers, but its detection by imaging is challenging. A novel microvascular imaging (MVI) technique, Angio-PLUS, promises to overcome the limitations of color Doppler (CD) in detecting low-velocity flow and small diameter vessels.PurposeTo determine the utility of the Angio-PLUS technique for detecting blood flow in breast masses and compare it with CD for differentiating benign from malignant masses.Material and MethodsA total of 79 consecutive women with breast masses were prospectively evaluated using CD and Angio-PLUS techniques, and biopsied as per BI-RADS recommendations. Vascular imaging scores were assigned using three factors (number, morphology, and distribution) and vascular patterns were divided into five groups: internal-dot-spot, external-dot-spot, marginal, radial, and mesh patterns. The independent samples t-test, Mann–Whitney U test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, or Fisher’s exact test were used to compare the two groups as appropriate. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) methods were used to assess diagnostic accuracy.ResultsVascular scores were significantly higher on Angio-PLUS than CD (median=11, [IQR=9–13] vs. 5 [IQR=3–9], P < 0.001). Malignant masses had higher vascular scores than benign masses on Angio-PLUS (P < 0.001). AUC was 80% (95% CI=70.3–89.7; P < 0.001) for Angio-PLUS and 51.9% for CD. Using Angio-PLUS at a cutoff value of ≥9.5, sensitivity was 80% and specificity was 66.7%. Vascular pattern descriptors on AP showed good correlation with histopathological results (PPV mesh 95.5%, radial 96.9%, and NPV of marginal orientation 90.5%).ConclusionAngio-PLUS was more sensitive in detecting vascularity and superior in differentiating benign from malignant masses compared to CD. Vascular pattern descriptors on Angio-PLUS were useful.

  • Multiple sclerosis versus cerebral small vessel disease in MRI: a practical approach using qualitative and quantitative signal intensity differences in white matter lesions
    by Sabahattin Yuzkan on 2. marts 2023 at 5:54

    Acta Radiologica, Ahead of Print. <br/>BackgroundMultiple sclerosis (MS) and cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) are relatively common radiological entities that occasionally necessitate differential diagnosis.PurposeTo investigate the differences in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal intensity (SI) between MS and CSVD related white matter lesions.Material and MethodsOn 1.5-T and 3-T MRI scanners, 50 patients with MS (380 lesions) and 50 patients with CSVD (395 lesions) were retrospectively evaluated. Visual inspection was used to conduct qualitative analysis on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)_b1000 to determine relative signal intensity. The thalamus served as the reference for quantitative analysis based on SI ratio (SIR). The statistical analysis utilized univariable and multivariable methods. There were analyses of patient and lesion datasets. On a dataset restricted by age (30–50 years), additional evaluations, including unsupervised fuzzy c-means clustering, were performed.ResultsUsing both quantitative and qualitative features, the optimal model achieved a 100% accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity with an area under the curve (AUC) of 1 in patient-wise analysis. With an AUC of 0.984, the best model achieved a 94% accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity when using only quantitative features. The model's accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were 91.9%, 84.6%, and 95.8%, respectively, when using the age-restricted dataset. Independent predictors were T2_SIR_max (optimal cutoff=2.1) and DWI_b1000_SIR_mean (optimal cutoff=1.1). Clustering also performed well with an accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 86.5%, 70.6%, and 100%, respectively, in the age-restricted dataset.ConclusionSI characteristics derived from DWI_b1000 and T2-weighted-based MRI demonstrate excellent performance in differentiating white matter lesions caused by MS and CSVD.

  • Performance of machine learning-based coronary computed tomography angiography for selecting revascularization candidates
    by Zengfa Huang on 27. februar 2023 at 12:42

    Acta Radiologica, Ahead of Print. <br/>BackgroundLimited studies have investigated the accuracy of therapeutic decision-making using machine learning-based coronary computed tomography angiography (ML-CCTA) compared with CCTA.PurposeTo investigate the performance of ML-CCTA for therapeutic decision compared with CCTA.Material and MethodsThe study population consisted of 322 consecutive patients with stable coronary artery disease. The SYNTAX score was calculated with an online calculator based on ML-CCTA results. Therapeutic decision-making was determined by ML-CCTA results and the ML-CCTA-based SYNTAX score. The therapeutic strategy and the appropriate revascularization procedure were selected using ML-CCTA, CCTA, and invasive coronary angiography (ICA) independently.ResultsThe sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy of ML-CCTA and CCTA for selecting revascularization candidates were 87.01%, 96.43%, 95.71%, 89.01%, 91.93%, and 85.71%, 87.50%, 86.27%, 86.98%, 86.65%, respectively, using ICA as the standard reference. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of ML-CCTA for selecting revascularization candidates was significantly higher than CCTA (0.917 vs. 0.866, P = 0.016). Subgroup analysis showed the AUC of ML-CCTA for selecting percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) candidates was significantly higher than CCTA (0.883 vs. 0.777, P < 0.001, 0.912 vs. 0.826, P = 0.003, respectively).ConclusionML-CCTA could distinguish between patients who need revascularization and those who do not. In addition, ML-CCTA showed a slightly superior to CCTA in making an appropriate decision for patients and selecting a suitable revascularization strategy.

  • Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) for assessment of response to high-dose-rate CT-guided brachytherapy (HDR-BT) of hepatocellular carcinoma
    by Homeira Karim on 27. februar 2023 at 7:51

    Acta Radiologica, Ahead of Print. <br/>BackgroundHigh-dose-rate computed tomography (CT)-guided brachytherapy (HDR-BT) has shown promising results in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). While growing evidence shows clear limitations of mRECIST, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has relevant potential in improving the response assessment.PurposeTo assess whether DWI allows evaluation of short- and long-term tumor response in patients with HCC after HDR-BT.Material and MethodsA total of 22 patients with 11 non-responding HCCs (NR-HCC; local tumor recurrence within two years) and 24 responding HCCs (R-HCC; follow-up at least two years) were included in this retrospective bi-center study. HCCs were treated with HDR-BT and patients underwent pre- and post-interventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Analyses of DWI were evaluated and compared between pre-interventional MRI, 1.follow-up after 3 months and 2.follow-up at the time of the local tumor recurrence (in NR-HCC) or after 12 months (in R-HCC).ResultsADCmean of R-HCC increased significantly after HDR-BT on the first and second follow-up (ADCmean: 0.87 ± 0.18 × 10−3 mm2/s [pre-interventional]: 1.14 ± 0.23 × 10−3 mm2/s [1. post-interventional]; 1.42 ± 0.32 × 10−3 mm2/s [2. post-interventional]; P < 0.001). ADCmean of NR-HCC did not show a significant increase from pre-intervention to 1. post-interventional MRI (ADCmean: 0.85 ± 0.24 × 10−3 mm2/s and 1.00 ± 0.30 × 10−3 mm2/s, respectively; P = 0.131). ADCmean increase was significant between pre-intervention and 2. follow-up (ADCmean: 1.03 ± 0.19 × 10−3 mm2/s; P = 0.018). There was no significant increase of ADCmean between the first and second follow-up. There was, however, a significant increase of ADCmin after 12 months (ADCmin: 0.87 ± 0.29 × 10−3 mm2/s) compared to pre-interventional MRI and first follow-up (P < 0.005) only in R-HCC.ConclusionThe tumor response after CT-guided HDR-BT was associated with a significantly higher increase in ADCmean and ADCmin in short- and long-term follow-up.

  • Corrigendum to Effect of the respiratory motion of pulmonary nodules on CT-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy
    on 15. februar 2023 at 3:54

    Acta Radiologica, Ahead of Print. <br/>

  • Comparison of image quality and radiation dose of different scanning methods used for computed tomography of the unilateral shoulder
    by Dongdong Jiang on 13. februar 2023 at 7:10

    Acta Radiologica, Ahead of Print. <br/>BackgroundThe effect of different computed tomography (CT) scanning methods of the shoulder on image quality is uncertain.PurposeTo compare the effect of different methods of CT scanning of the right shoulder on image quality and radiation dose.Material and MethodsA total of 30 adults were divided into five groups. Group A received scans centered on the body's long axis, a scout direction of 0° + 90°, and automatic tube current modulation (ATCM). The other four groups (B, C, D, E) received isocenter scans centered on the shoulder with different scout directions (B and C: 0° + 90°, D: 0°, E: 0° + 270°) and tube currents (B: 420 mA; C, D, E: ATCM). The volume CT dose index (CTDIvol), dose-length product (DLP), image objective noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were compared. Three subjective measures were also compared (noise, stripe artifacts, diagnostic confidence).ResultsThe five groups differed significantly in all subjective and objective indexes. The CTDIvol and DLP decreased in the order of groups C, A, B, E, and D; the differences between groups A and B were not significant (P > 0.05). Groups B, C, and E had better SNR and CNR than groups A and D (P < 0.01). Subjective evaluations indicated group D was worse than groups B, C, and E (P < 0.05).ConclusionIn the ATCM system that uses the last scout view, CT of the shoulder should use isocenter scanning with the lateral scout view when the tube is away from the long axis of the body as the last execution direction.